Textbooks and chapters  

  • Rombeau JL, Rolandelli RH. Clinical Nutrition: Enteral and Tube Feeding . 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1997. Comprehensive reference text covering metabolic and clinical aspects of malnutrition/starvation in the context of enteral nutrition support therapy.  
  • Rolandelli RH, Rombeau JL. Clinical Nutrition: Parenteral Nutrition. 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 2000. Comprehensive reference text covering metabolic and clinical aspects of malnutrition/starvation in the context of parenteral nutrition support therapy .
  • Smith MK, Lowry SF. The Hypercatabolic State. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC. Modern nutrition in health and disease . 9 th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. pp 1555-1568. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of endocrine, cytokine and metabolic aspects in catabolic stress states.  
  • Hasselgren PO. Mediators, hormones, and control of metabolism: Regulation of protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during critical illness. In: Fischer JE, ed. Nutrition and Metabolism in the Surgical Patient. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1996. Pp 57-104. Detailed review of cytokine mediators and nutrient metabolism during critical illness.  
  • Bessey PQ. Metabolic response to trauma and infection. In: Fischer JE, ed. Nutrition and Metabolism in the Surgical Patient. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1996. pp 601-622. Review of nutritional/metabolic responses to surgery and other forms of stress, including excellent overview of hormonal control.  
  • Ziegler, TR. Fuel Metabolism and Nutrient Delivery in Critical Illness. In: Becker KL and Nylen ES (Eds): Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 2000 (in press). Review of major aspects of fuel metabolism in severe illness and outlines strategies for nutrient delivery in critical care.  

Review articles  

  • Wilmore DW. Alterations in protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism in injured and septic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 2:3-13, 1983. Comprehensive review of metabolic responses to injury in the pre-cytokine era; relevant with regard to classical endocrine hormonal responses.  
  • Wilmore DW, Smith RJ, O'Dwyer ST, Jacobs DO, Ziegler TR, Wang XD. The gut: A central organ after surgical stress. Surgery 104: 917-923, 1988. Classic report on the importance of gut-derived sepsis and metabolic responses and etiology of bacterial translocation.  
  • Hasselgren PO. Pathways of muscle protein breakdown in injury and sepsis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2:155-160, 1999. Comprehensive review of hormonal/cytokine alterations and responses during cataboic stress.  
  • Wilmore DW. Metabolic response to severe surgical illness: an overview. World J Surg 24: 705-711, 2000. Update on hormonal/cytokine responses to severe trauma and surgical illness.  
  • Edwards PD, Moldawer LL. Role of cytokines in the metabolic response to stress . Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1:187-190, 1998. Review of the role of circulating and tissue cytokines during catabolic stress.  
  • Van den Berghe GH. The neuroendocrine stress response and modern intensive care: the concept revisited. Burns 25:7-16, 1999. Comprehensive overview of neuroendocrine/hormonal responses in critical illness.  
  • DeWitt RC, Kudsk KA. The gut's role in metabolism, mucosal barrier function, and gut immunology. Inf Dis Clin N Am 13: 465-481,1999. Comprehensive review of gut barrier dysfunction during illness  

Original reports  

  • Gelfand RA, Matthews DE, Bier RM, Sherwin RS. Role of counterregulatory hormones in the catabolic response to stress. J Clin Invest 74: 2238-2248, 1984. Classic paper on role of counterregulatory hormones during catabolic stress.  
  • Monk DN, Plank LD, Franch-Arcas G, et al. Sequential changes in the metabolic response in critically injured patients during the first 25 days after blunt trauma. Ann Surg 223: 395-405, 1996. Comprehensive study of body composition and metabolic responses in ICU trauma patients.  

Seminal papers  

  • Cuthbertson DP. Observations on the disturbances of metabolism produced by injury to the limbs. Q J Med 1: 233-244, 1932. Classic paper confirming loss of nitrogen after traumatic stress.  
  • Cuthbertson DP. The physiology of convalescence after injury. Br Med Bull 3: 96-102, 1945. Seminal review of metabolic responses to injury.  
  • Shaw JHF, Wildbore M, Wolfe RR. Whole body protein kinetics in severely septic patients. Ann Surg 205: 288-294, 1987. Quantitative assessment of protein metabolism and nitrogen balance in sepsis.  
  • Shaw JHF, Wolfe RR. An integrated analysis of glucose, fat and protein metabolism in severely traumatized patients. Ann Surg 209: 63-72, 1989. Detailed integration of glucose, fat and protein metabolism after severe injury.  

Case studies  

  • See cases provided in chapter 7 (Gastrointestinal Disease), chapter 9 (Pulmonary Disease) and chapter 12 (Parenteral Nutrition) in Morrison G, Hark L . Medical Nutrition and Disease. 2 nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1999.

Mediated materials  

  • Zeisel S (ed). Nutrition and Stress. CD-ROM in: Nutrition in Medicine . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

Clinical algorithms, practice standards, position papers  

  • Cerra FB, Benitez MR, Blackburn GL, et al. Applied nutrition in ICU patients. A consensus statement of the American College of Chest Physicians. Chest . 111: 769-78, 1997. Position paper on nutritional support in the ICU setting.  
  • The science and practice of nutrition support: a case-based core curriculum. Dubuque, IA, 2001, Kendall/Hunt. A broad reference addressing all aspects of nutrition support.  
  • ASPEN, Shikora SA, Martindale RG, Schwaitzberg SB, eds. Nutritional considerations in the intensive care unit: science, rationale, and practice . Dubuque, IA, 2002, Kendall/Hunt.