Textbooks and chapters  

  • See Heimburger & Weinsier.
  • Rombeau JL, Rolandelli RH. Clinical Nutrition: Enteral and Tube Feeding. 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1997. Comprehensive reference text covering metabolic and clinical aspects of malnutrition/starvation in the context of enteral nutrition support therapy.  

Review articles  

  • Apovian CM, McMahon MM, Bistrian BR. Guidelines for refeeding the marasmic patient. Crit Care Med 18:1030-1033, 1990. A review of pathophysiology of refeeding syndrome, with guidelines for the nutritional support of those at risk of refeeding syndrome.  
  • Knochel JP. The clinical status of hypophosphatemia, an update. N Eng J Med 313: 447-449, 1985. Comprehensive review of hypophosphatemia.  
  • Dwyer K, Barone JE, Rogers JF. Severe hypophosphatemia in postoperative patients. Nut Clin Pract 7: 279-293, 1992. Study confirming risk factors and responses to hypophosphatemia.  
  • Solomon SM, Kirby DF. The refeeding syndrome: A review. JPEN 1990;14:90-7. A review of the refeeding syndrome, including its pathogenesis and clinical consequences.  

Seminal papers  

  • Weinsier RL, Krumdieck CL. Death resulting from overzealous total parenteral nutrition: The refeeding syndrome revisited. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:393-9. A report of fatal refeeding syndrome from sudden overfeeding of two marasmic patients.  
  • Hayek ME, Eisenberg PG. Severe hypophosphatemia following the institution of enteral feedings. Arch Surg 124: 1325-1328, 1989. Study of the incidence of hypophosphatemia following the institution of enteral feedings.  
  • Marik PE, Bedigian MK. Refeeding hypophosphatemia in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. A prospective study. Arch Surg 131: 1043-1047, 1996. Study documents the incidence of refeeding hypophosphatemia in critically ill patients  

Case Studies