Franz MJ, Bantle JP. American Diabetes Association Guide to Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes. American Diabetes Association Clinical Education Series, 1999. Authoritative and comprehensive text covering all aspects of nutrition and diabetes throughout the life cycle.

Natow AB, Heslin J. The Diabetes Carbohydrate and Calorie Counter. Pocket Books, New York, 2003. It is important to be aware of the principles of carbohydrate counting and this resource contains thousands of foods with respective portion size, calories, gm fat/carb/sugar.

Review articles

Klein S, Sheard NF, Pi-Sunyer X, Daly A, Wylie-Rosett J, Kulkarni K, Clark NG; ADA, NAASO, ASCN. Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type-2 diabetes: rationale and strategies. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 257-263. Focus on the role of weight loss, lifestyle and physical activity with review of the literature.

Moore H, Summerbell C, Hooper L, et al. Dietary advice for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Metareview of 18 clinical trials involving 1467 demonstrating benefit of physical activity with high-quality nutritional data lacking.
Opperman AM, Venter CS, Oosthuizen W, Thompson RL, Vorster HH. Meta-analysis of the health effects of using the glycaemic index in meal-planning. Br J Nutr 2004; 92: 367-381. Meta-analysis and review of the literature - demonstrating benefit of this controversial dietary approach.

Parillo M, Riccardi G. Diet composition and the risk of type 2 diabetes: epidemiological and clinical evidence. Br J Nutr 2004; 92: 7-19. Comprehensive review of recent evidence and synthesis of nutritional recommendations for diabetic patients.

Stein NP, Mann J, Bennett PH, et al. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutr 2004; 7: 147-165. Evidence-based review with concrete recommendations.

Original reports

Barringer TA, Kirk JK, Santaniello AC, et al. Effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplement on infection and quality of life. Ann Int Med 2003; 138: 365-371. Important study in which daily MVI use reduced infections with the effect most pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, et al. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 3230-3236. Significant study demonstrating the benefit of nutrition and physical activity in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.

Toeller M et al. Associations of fat and cholesterol intake with serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease: The EURODIAB IDDM complications study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1999;107:512-521. Reductions of dietary cholesterol, saturated fat and total fat intake with higher fiber intake were associated with beneficial effects on total and LDL cholesterol levels.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, et al. Translating lifestyle intervention to practice in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: improving control with activity and nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 1570-1576. Lifestyle case management improves biochemical and clinical markers of type 2 diabetes.

Seminal Papers

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393-403. Lifestyle changes reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes in high risk patients to a greater extent than metformin.

Clinical algorithms, Practice Guidelines and/or Position Papers

Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Nutrition principles and recommendations in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 suppl 1:S36-S46. Succinct evidence-based nutritional recommendations for diabetes.