New Global Consensus for Diagnosing Malnutrition in Adult Patients from the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM)

Adoption of global consensus criteria will allow for comparison of malnutrition prevalence, interventions, and outcomes throughout the world  
SILVER SPRING, MD, USA and LUXEMBOURG, EUROPE, September 3, 2018. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN), the Latin American Federation for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (FELANPE), and the Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia (PENSA) are pleased to announce the release of The GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition — a Consensus Report from the Global Clinical Nutrition Community. The report provides a global, consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings and has just been published in the latest issue of ASPEN’s Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and ESPEN’s Clinical Nutrition. It can be found at .

The five criteria for malnutrition include non-volitional weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass as phenotypic criteria, and reduced food intake/assimilation and inflammation/disease burden as etiologic criteria. It is proposed that the diagnosis of malnutrition be based upon the presence of at least one phenotypic criterion and one etiologic criterion.

Although malnutrition is a serious concern associated with adverse outcomes and cost, no single existing approach to malnutrition diagnosis has achieved broad global acceptance. In January 2016, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) working group convened to build the much-needed consensus.

Led by Dr. Gordon L. Jensen from ASPEN and Dr. Tommy Cederholm from ESPEN, the participating societies endorsed a two-step approach for the diagnosis of malnutrition. First, screening to identify “at risk” status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The GLIM team considered malnutrition criteria that were retrieved from established approaches to diagnosis. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among the team. “We brought the international community together to develop consensus criteria for diagnosing malnutrition that are simple and can be readily applied by clinicians and other health practitioners using available tools and methods in their region,” said Gordon L. Jensen, MD, PhD, Senior Associate Dean for Research, Professor of Medicine and Nutrition, The Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont.

“We will seek to secure further collaboration and endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback to secure future refinements of the diagnosis,” said Tommy Cederholm, MD, PhD, Professor of Clinical Nutrition, Head of Clinical Nutrition & Metabolism, Department of Public Health & Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.

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About American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) is dedicated to improving patient care by advancing the science and practice of nutrition support therapy and metabolism. Founded in 1976, ASPEN is an interdisciplinary organization whose members are involved in the provision of clinical nutrition therapies, including parenteral and enteral nutrition. With more than 6,500 members from around the world, ASPEN is a community of dietitians, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, physicians, scientists, students and other health professionals from every facet of nutrition support clinical practice, research and education. For more information about ASPEN, please visit

About European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism

The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) is dedicated to all issues relevant to the field of clinical nutrition and metabolism, aimed at promoting optimal patient care through nutrition therapy. ESPEN activities promote and support research, education and optimal clinical practice, and they include a strong effort in organization of clinical guidelines and consensus statements. ESPEN is celebrating its 40th anniversary, with a global reach through a network of more than 55 affiliated national clinical nutrition Societies from all over the world. Its membership is multiprofessional and multidisciplinary, representing physicians from different medical specialties, dietitians, nurses, pharmacists and all other health professionals involved in nutritional patient care. For more information on ESPEN, please visit

About Latin American Federation for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

The Latin American Federation for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (FELANPE) aggregates parenteral and enteral societies in Latin American and, has as core principles the dissemination of the role of nutrition therapy, its relevancy and good practices, as an integral approach of patient care. Various professionals (physicians from different medical specialties, dietitians, pharmacists, nurses, speech therapists and others) are members of FELANPE through their national societies. FELANPE has worked together with these national societies to improve nutrition practices, respecting the particularities of each Latin American country in order to implement the best quality nutrition care and, it has also worked with governments to adopt nutritional policies. For more information about FELANPE, please visit

About Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia

The Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia (PENSA) is a society for Asian physicians and personnel working in nutritional support. The society was founded on May 6, 1995 and serves members from across the region. Goals include: To foster research and development in nutritional support in Asian Countries. To provide a forum to address and exchange clinical experiences and scientific data in nutritional support, oriented at improvement in overall patient care. To promote, by means of providing education, the awareness of physicians of the importance of nutritional support in hospitalized patients. To create good relationships among international nutritional societies. To perform activities concerning the nutritional support for the hospitalized patients without political involvement. For more information about PENSA, please visit