Textbooks and chapters  

  • Morgan SL, Saag K, Julian B, Blair H. Osteopenic bone diseases. In: Koopman WJ (ed). Arthritis & Allied Conditions: A Textbook of Rheumatology. 14 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000. Review of metabolic bone diseases.  
  • Avioli LV and Krane SM. Metabolic Bone Disease and Clinically Related Disorders . Philadelphia: Saunders Co, 1998. Well-written and comprehensive resource for in-depth study .
  • Favus MJ (ed). Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism . Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003. Concise resource for any topic related to bone and mineral disorders. Compendium of tables and charts at end for quick reference.  
  • Bonnick SL. Bone densitometry in clinical practice. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1998.

Review articles  

  • Bacciottini L, Brandi ML.  Foods and new foods: the role of nutrition in skeletal health.  J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: S115-S117.  A variety of whole-foods and dietary supplements improve skeletal health.  
  • Farrow S. The Endocrinology of Bone. Journal of Endocrinology Ltd. Bristol UK. Reprinted from Journal of Endocrinology , vol 154, suppl Sept 1997. This is a series of 7 papers from the Journal of Endocrinology (British) on Rickets, PTH analogues, PTH related protein, cartilage differentiation, integrin function in osteoclasts, vitamin D pathophysiology and pseudovitamin D deficiency states.  
  • Flynn A.  The role of dietary calcium in bone health.  Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62: 851-858.  Important review of calcium homeostasis and skeletal health.  
  • Hamilton C, Seidner DL.  Metabolic bone disease and parenteral nutrition.  Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2004; 6: 335-341.  Metabolic bone disease can develop with long-term parenteral nutrition and certain PN adjustments can reduce the risk for this potential complication.  
  • Murphy NM, Carroll P.  The effect of physical activity and its interaction with nutrition on bone health.  Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62: 829-838.  Review of the literature on the interplay between physical activity and calcium homeostasis on bone health.  
  • New SA.  Intake of fruit and vegetables: implications for bone health.  Proc Nutr Soc 2003; 62: 889-899.  Important association of fruits and vegetables on skeletal health with particular emphasis on the bone functioning in acid-base balance.  
  • Rude RK. Magnesium deficiency: a cause of heterogenous disease in humans. J Bone Min Res . 1998;13:749-758. Comprehensive review of magnesium pathophysiology and treatments of disease states. It includes many summary tables and protocol for a magnesium tolerance test. Well referenced and current.  
  • Weaver CM, Fleet JC.  Vitamin D requirements: current and future.  Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 1735S-1739S.  Recommendations updated from 1997 statements.  

Original reports  

  • Goode LR, Brolin RE, Chowdhury HA, et al.  Bone and gastric bypass surgery: effects of dietary calcium and vitamin D.  Obes Res 2004; 12: 40-47.  Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a significant problem following several types of bariatric procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.  This is associated with vitamin D and calcium malabsorption and decreased bone mineral density.  
  • Lin PH, Ginty F, Appel LJ, et al.  The DASH diet and sodium reduction improve markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism in adults.  J Nutr 2003; 133: 3130-3136.  Reduction of renal sodium excretion is associated with improved calcium balance and bone mineral status.  
  • Roberts D et al. Longitudinal study of bone turnover after acute spinal cord injury. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:415-422. Spinal cord injury patients represent a distinct subpopulation in which abnormal bone and mineral metabolism occurs. This is a 6 month longitudinal followup of biochemical and densitometric markers of metabolic bone disease in this patients.  
  • Shane E et al. Prevention of bone loss after heart transplantation with antiresorptive therapy: a pilot study. J Heart Lung Transplant . 1998;17:1089-1096. Calcitriol-pamidronate therapy is becoming more common in a variety of disease states. This report describes its use and effect in patients who have had cardiac transplantation.  
  • Silverberg SJ et al. The effects of vitamin D insufficiency in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Med 1999;107:561-567. This study describes the negative effect concurrent vitamin D deficiency has on metabolic bone disease when primary hyperparathyroidism is present. Implications for nutritional intervention with vitamin D are discussed.  
  • Trang HM et al. Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:854-858. This study provides evidence that vitamins D2 and D3 have different nutritional values.  

Seminal papers  

  • Delmas PD et al. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. New Engl J Med 1997;337:1641-1647. Definitive study demonstrating effect of raloxifene -- increases bone mineral density and lowers total and LDL cholesterol without stimulating endometrium. This provides an alternative to the use of hormone replacement therapy in women .
  • Hosking D et al. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. New Engl J Med 1998;338:485-492. Definitive report of alendronate preventing bone loss in women to nearly the same extent as that of hormone relacement therapy.