Review articles  

  • McMahon M, Manji N, Driscoll DF, Bistrian BR. Parenteral nutrition in patients with diabetes mellitus: theoretical and practical considerations. JPEN: J Parent Enteral Nutr 13: 545-53, 1989. Review and practical clinical recommendations for management of parenteral nutrition in diabetes mellitus.  
  • Berger MM. Shenkin A. Trace elements in trauma and burns. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1:513-517, 1998. Comprehensive review of trace element status in burns and trauma.  
  • Satyanarayana R, Klein S. Clinical efficacy of perioperative nutrition support. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1: 51-58, 1998. Current review on efficacy of perioperative parenteral nutrition.  
  • Griffiths RD. Glutamine: establishing clinical indications. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2:177-182, 1999. Comprehensive review on clinical outcome data with glutamine supplementation.  
  • Dupont IE. Carpentier YA. Clinical use of lipid emulsions. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2:139-45, 1999. Comprehensive review on clinical metabolic data with different forms of intravenous lipids.  
  • Ross JA. Moses AG. Fearon KC. The anti-catabolic effects of n-3 fatty acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2:219-26, 1999. Reviews the recent evidence on anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of n-3 fatty acids.  
  • Heyland DK. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in the seriously ill, hospitalized patient: a critical review of the evidence. J Nutr Health Aging 4: 31-41, 2000. Critical review on the efficacy of nutritional support in ICU patients.  

Original reports  

  • Delmi M, Rapin C-H, Bengoa J-M, et al. Dietary supplementation in elderly patients with fractured neck of the femur. Lancet 335: 1013-1016, 1990. Classic report on the role of in-hospital nutritional support following hip fracture surgery.  
  • Buzby GP, Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group: Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. N Engl J Med 325:525-532, 1991. Classic report on the role of perioperative parenteral nutritional support in VA patients.  
  • Kudsk KA, Croce NM, Fabian A, et al. Enteral vs parenteral feeding: effects on septic morbidity following blunt and penetrating trauma. Ann Surg 215: 503-513, 1992. Classic report defining the importance of entereal vs. parenteral feeding after trauma.  
  • Ziegler TR, Young LS, Benfell K, et al: Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. Ann Int Med 116: 821-828,1992. First study defining clinical efficacy of glutamine supplementation of TPN.  
  • Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al: Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic, and clinical outcome. Surgery 112: 56-67,1992. Classic study on the efficacy of enteral arginine supplementation after major operation.  
  • Howard L, Ament M, Fleming CR, et al. Current use and clinical outcome of home parenteral and enteral nutrition therapies in the United States. Gastroenterology . 109:355-365, 1995. Comprehensive review on patterns of home nutrition support in the USA.  
  • Battistella FD, Widergren JT, Anderson JT, et al. A prospective, randomized trial of intravenous fast emulsion administration in trauma victims requiring total parenteral nutrition. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care 43: 52-60, 1997. Well-done study suggesting that intravenous lipid emulsion in burn patients worsens outcome.  
  • Heyland DK, MacDonald S, Keefe L, Drover JW. Total parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient: a meta-analysis. JAMA 280: 2013-2019, 1998. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of parenteral nutrition in ICU patients.  
  • Montejo JC. Enteral nutrition-related gastrointestinal complications in critically ill patients: a multicenter study. Crit Care Med 27: 1447-1453, 1999. Comprehensive study on complications related to enteral (primarily gastric) tube feeding.  
  • Chan S, McCowen KC, Bistrian BR, et al. Incidence, prognosis, and etiology of end-stage liver disease in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Surgery 29: 28-34, 1999. Study demonstrates risk factors for liver dysfunction in patients receiving home TPN.  

Seminal papers  

  • Wilmore DW, Dudrick SJ. Growth and development of an infant receiving all nutrients exclusively by vein. JAMA. 203: 860-864, 1968. First demonstration of growth and development with parenteral feeding alone in humans.  
  • Streat SJ, Beddoe AH, Hill GL. Aggressive nutritional support does not prevent protein loss despite fat gain in septic intensive care patients. J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care . 27:262-266, 1987. State-of-the art body composition study showing that conventional nutrition support is unable to prevent erosion of lean body mass in severe critical illness.  
  • Bastow MD, Rawlings J, Allison SP. Benefits of supplementary tube feeding after fractured neck of femur: a randomized controlled trial. Br Med J 287: 1589-1592, 1983. Documents significant clinical benefits with tube feeding in this patient population.  

Case Studies  

Mediated materials  

  • Zeisel S (ed). Nutrition and Stress . CD-ROM in: Nutrition in Medicine . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.
  • Milner-Fenwick Inc., Timonium, MD: American Gastroenterological Association Clinical Teaching Project.An excellent series of slide-based teaching materials. All units come with written teaching material associated with each slide. Order individual units (in slide or CD-ROM format) from  

Unit 13A: Energy and Protein  

Unit 13B: Vitamins and Minerals  

Unit 15: Clinical Nutrition I: Specialized Nutrition Support  

Unit 16: Clinical Nutrition II: Short Bowel Syndrome  

Web sites  

The following sites may be most relevant to material in this section

Clinical algorithms, practice standards, position papers  

  • American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: Standards for Home Nutrition Support. Nutr Clin Pract 7:65-69, 1992.
  • American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Board of Directors. Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. JPEN J Parent Enteral Nutr 17: 1SA-52SA, 1993.
  • American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Standards for nutrition support: hospitalized patients. Nutr Clin Pract 10: 208-220, 1995.
  • American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement: guidelines for the use of enteral nutrition. Gastroenterology. 108:1280-1281, 1995.
  • Kirby DF, DeLegge MH, Fleming CR. American Gastroenterological Association Technical Review on Tube Feeding for Enteral Nutrition. Gastroenterology 108: 1282-1301, 1995.
  • Jolliet P, Pichard C, Biolo G, et al. Enteral nutrition in intensive care patients: a practical approach. Working Group on Nutrition and Metabolism, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Int Care Med 24: 848-859, 1998.

Downloadable packages  

  • American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) . The ASPEN web site provides several downloadable Standards of Practice Guidelines: Nutrition Support in Hospitalized Patients; Nutrition Support in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients; Adult Residents of Long-Term Facilities; Home Nutrition Support; Standards of Practice for Nutrition Support Physicians, Nurses, Pharmacists and Dietitians