Textbooks and chapters

Rombeau JL, Rolandelli RH. Clinical Nutrition: Enteral and Tube Feeding . 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1997. Comprehensive reference text covering metabolic and clinical aspects of malnutrition/starvation in the context of enteral nutrition support therapy.

Rolandelli RH, Rombeau JL. Clinical Nutrition: Parenteral Nutrition. rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 2000. Comprehensive reference text covering metabolic and clinical aspects of malnutrition/starvation in the context of parenteral nutrition support therapy .

Alpers DH, Stenson WF, Bier DM. Manual of Nutritional Therapeutics . 3 rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1995. Handbook style manual with sections relevant to malnutrition/deficiency states.

Hark L., Morrison G, Medical Nutrition and Disease . A Case-based Approach. 3 rd Edition: Malden, MA; Blackwell Science, 2003. An integrated, clinical case-based reference text that covers fundamentals related to diagnosis and treatment of nutrition disorders. The text is particularly designed for medical students and physicians without specific prior training in nutrition, but is also useful for physicians with prior experience and training in nutrition sciences.

Review articles

Elia M. Hunger disease. Clin Nutr 2000;19:379-386. Review of the metabolic adaptation of starvation.

Kotler DP. Cachexia. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:622-34. Comprehensive review of mediators and nutritional support in cachexia.

Allison SP. Malnutrition, disease and outcome. Nutrition 16: 590-593, 2000. Review of data on the link between malnutrition and clinical outcome during illness.

Hoffer LJ. Clinical nutrition: 1. Protein-energy malnutrition in the inpatient. CMAJ 2001;165:1345-1349. Review of the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of malnutrition.

Hoffer LJ. Protein and energy provision in critical illness. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:906-911.

Original reports

Scrimshaw NS. Synergism of malnutrition and infection. Evidence from field studies in Guatemala. JAMA. 212:1685-1692, 1970. Classic report on interaction between malnutrition and infection risk and effects of infection on parameters of nutritional status.

Bistrian BR, Blackburn GL, Scrimshaw NS, Flatt JP. Cellular immunity in semistarved states in hospitalized adults. Am J Clin Nutr 28: 1148-1155, 1975. Classic study on link between malnutrition and impaired immune functions.

Brennan MF: Uncomplicated starvation versus cancer cachexia. Cancer Res 37: 2359-2364, 1977. Study describing differences in metabolism in simple starvation vs. cancer-related cachexia.

Baker JP, Detsky AS, Wessen DE, et al. Nutritional assessment: a comparison of clinical judgment and objective measurements. New Engl J Med 306: 969-973, 1982. Classic report showing that subjective clinical assessment of nutritional status is a valid and useful clinical tool.

Warnold I, Lundholm K. Clinical significance of preoperative nutritional status in 215 non-cancer patients. Ann Surg 199: 299-305, 1984. Comprehensive study showing that preoperative malnutrition adversely affects clinical outcomes.

Coats KG, Morgan SL, Bartolucci AA, et al: Hospital-associated malnutrition: A reevaluation 12 years later. J Am Diet Assoc 93: 27-33,1989. Confirms that hospital malnutrition remains an important clinical problem.

Seminal papers

Butterworth CE. The skeleton in the hospital closet. Nutr Today 1974;Mar/Apr:4-8. Classical article describing the factors that lead to iatrogenic malnutrition.

Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, et al: The Biology of Human Starvation , vols 1, 2. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1950. Classic experimental report on the biology of starvation in man.

Cahill GF Jr. Starvation in man. New Engl J Med 282: 668-675, 1970. Classic paper summarizing major metabolic responses to starvation.

Young VR Scrimshaw NS. The physiology of starvation. Scientific American . 225:14-21, 1971. Comprehensive paper summarizing physiologic responses to starvation.

Scrimshaw NS, Taylor CE, Gordon JE. Interactions of nutrition and infection. Am J Med Sci 237: 367-403, 1959 (Reviewed as classical article in: Nutr Rev 48:402-5, 1990). Elegant paper describing interaction between malnutrition and infection.

Studley HO. Percentage of weight loss, a basic indicator of surgical risk in patients with chronic peptic ulcers. JAMA 106: 458-462, 1936. Classic observation of increased postoperative morbidity and mortality in malnourished patients.

Nixon DW, Heymsfield SB, Cohen AE, et al. Protein-calorie undernutrition in hospitalized cancer patients. Am J Med 68: 683-690, 1980. Comprehensive survey demonstrated a high incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized cancer patients.

Case studies

See cases provided in Chapter 1 "Overview of Nutrition Assessment" ; Chapter 2 "Vitamins, Minerals, and Phytochemicals" ; Chapter 8 "Gastrointestinal Disease" ; Chapter 12 "Enteral Nutrition Support" and Chapter 13 "Parenteral Nutrition Support" in Hark L., Morrison G Medical Nutrition and Disease . 3 rd Ed.. Malden, MA; Blackwell Science, 2003.

Mediated materials

Zeisel S (ed). Nutritional Anemias and Nutrition for the Second Half of Life. CD-ROM series. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

Clinical algorithms, practice standards, position papers

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Board of Directors. Guidelines for the use of parenteral and enteral nutrition in adult and pediatric patients. J Parent Ent Nutr 26, No 1 (suppl): 1SA-138SA, 2002. Comprehensive guidelines on administration of enteral and parenteral nutrition support in malnourished and stressed adult and pediatric patients.