Textbooks and chapters

See Shils et al , Ziegler et al , and Heimburger & Weinsier.

Review Articles

Andrews NC. Disorders of iron metabolism. N Engl J Med (1999); 341:1986-1995. Well illustrated and well-referenced review.
Bailey LB and Gregory JF. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr (1999); 129:779-782. Good review of one-carbon transfer and transsulfuration pathways involving folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.
Hoffbrand AV, Herbert V. Nutritional anemias. Review. Semin Hematol Oct 1999; 36 (4 Suppl 7):13-23. Excellent review article in Folate, vitamin B12, and iron metabolism including inherited and acquired diseases. Also the relationship of B12 and folate in cardiovascular and neurological diseases such as Neural Tube defects.

Scholl TO, Reilly T. Anemia, iron and pregnancy outcome. Review. J Nutr. Feb. 2000 ; 130(2S Suppl):443S-447S. Good review article focusing on early diagnosis of anemia in deficiency in pregnancy. This article covers different aspects of anemia during pregnancy and its association with preterm delivery.

Wickramasinghe SN. The wide spectrum and unresolved issues of megaloblastic anemia. Semin Hematol Jan 1999; 36(1):3-18. Excellent review article about the fundamental questions relating to the biochemical basis of megaloblastic hemopoiesis in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and neurological damage in B12 deficiency. Also covers the relationship of folate and neural tube defects, dysplasia and cancer and arteriosclerotic vascular disease.

Green R, Miller JW. Folate deficiency beyond megaloblastic anemia: hyperhomocysteinemia and other manifestations of dysfunctional folate status. Review. Semin Hematol Jan 1999; 36(1):47-64. Excellent review article on folate metabolism. This article reviews folate deficient states and disease beyond the development of megaloblastic anemias. Other earlier manifestations of folate deficiency or of longstanding suboptimal folate nutrition an increased predisposition to occlusive vascular disease and thrombosis, which have been linked to increased levels of homocysteine, neurological consequences with disturbances of mood, and even spinal cord syndromes similar to those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency, and interference with immunologic status and may be associated with an increased predisposition to neoplasia.

Wurm P, Wicks AC. Iron deficiency anaemia-a clinical challenge. Postgrad Med J. Apr. 2000; 76(894):193-4. Good and practical review of iron deficiency anemias, diagnosis and treatment.

Schumann K, Elsenhans B, Maurer. Iron supplementation. Review. J Trace Elem Med Biol Nov 1998;12(3):129-40. Excellent review article. Special attention to vegetarian diets, physiologic demand including growth, pregnancy, and menstruation. This article also covers aspects of excess of iron stores such as: siderosis, hemochromatosis, thalassemia and aspects that may promote cancer and increase the cardiovascular risk.

Ernst E. Risks and benefits of vegetarianism. Review. Br J Hosp Med. Oct 15-Nov 4 1997; 58(8):372-4. This article reviews the benefits and risks of vegetarianism

Ribaya-Mercado JD. Importance of adequate vitamin A status during iron supplementation. Review. Nutr Rev. Aug 1997; 55(8):306-7. Good review article. This article reviews the potential benefit of vitamin A supplementation during iron therapy.

Kumpf VJ. Parenteral iron supplementation. Review Nutr Clin Pract. Aug 1996; 11(4):139-46. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also been reviewed.

Gallagher PG, Ehrenkranz RA . Nutritional anemias in infancy. Review. Clin Perinatol Sep 1995;22(3):671-92. Excellent review of anemias in infancy, this article reviews early diagnosis and treatment to prevent sequelae.

Original Articles

Okuda K. Discovery of vitamin B12 in the liver and its absorption factor in the stomach: a historical review. J Gastroenterol Hepatol Apr 1999; 14(4):301-8. This review article describes the early chronological events in the pursuit of a treatment for pernicious anaemia, and the subsequent discovery of vitamin B12 and the intrinsic factor. Biochemical purification and characterization of the intrinsic factor, and two other vitamin B12 proteins, R-binder (transcobalamin I, haptocorrin), and transcobalamin II, are discussed in detail.

Brown EB. Iron metabolism: a 40-year overview. Review. Am J Med Sep 1989; 87(3N):35N-39N. The study of iron metabolism during the past 40 years is summarized.
Hash RB, Sargent MA, Katner H. Anemia secondary to combined deficiencies of iron and cobalamin. Arch Fam Med. Nov-Dec 1996;5(10):585-8. Good review of anemias due to combine deficiencies with review of the literature focusing to cobalamine deficiency.

Howden CW. Vitamin B12 levels during prolonged treatment with proton pump inhibitors. J Clin Gastroenterol . Jan 2000; 30(1):29-33. Interested article of acquired B12 levels during treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The pharmacological action of the PPIs adequately explain the mechanism for this reduction.

Walter T, Olivares M, Pizarro F, Munoz C. Iron, anemia, and infection. Nutr Rev Apr 1997; 55(4):111-24. The data on the relationship between iron deficiency and infection are reviewed .

Seminal Papers

Lidenbaum J et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by cobalamin deficiency in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. N Engl J Med 1988; 318:1720-1708. Significant paper describing the neuropsychiatric sequelae of B12 deficiency and its relationship to folate status.

Mediated Materials

Zeisel S (ed). Nutritional Anemias . CD-ROM in: Nutrition in Medicine . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

Case studies

Rathle H, Hutter J. Index of suspicion. Case #1. Diagnosis: iron deficiency anemia. Pediatr Rev 2000 May;21(5):173-5.