National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases

American Gastroenterological Association

Normal Digestion and Absorption

March MN, Riley SA. Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients and Vitamins. In Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. M Feldman, BF Scharschmidt, MH Sleisenger, eds. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998, pp 1471-1494. This text chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the digestion and absorption of fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, minerals, and trace metals.

Gastrointestinal Immunology

Kagnoff MF. Immunology and Inflammation of the Gastrointestinal Tract. In Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. M Feldman, BF Scharschmidt, MH Sleisenger, eds. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1998, pp 19-32. This textbook chapter discusses the general concepts of the gastrointestinal immunologic system, including the characteristics and role of B and T lymphocytes, HLA genes, mast cells, eosinophils, cytokines, gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), antibody formation, and oral tolerance.

     Diagnostic Procedures

Lobo DN, Memon MA, Allison SP, Rowlands BJ. Evolution of Nutritional Support in Acute Pancreatitis. Br J Surg 87(6):695-707,2000. (This comprehensive review describes pancreatic physiology and the metabolic derangements that develop during acute pancreatitis and the need for nutritional intervention. The concept of "pancreatic rest" and the effects of enteral versus parenteral nutritional support and specific nutrients on pancreatic physiology and clinical outcome are reviewed).

Nutrition in Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Insufficiency

Scolopio JS, Malhi-Chowla N, Ukleja A. Nutritional Supplementation in Patients with Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 28(3):695-707,1999. (This comprehensive review covers the metabolic changes that develop in acute pancreatitis and the role of enteral or parenteral nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Nutritional management and enzyme replacement of the patient with chronic pancreatitis is discussed).

Malabsorption of Oligosaccharides and Monosaccharides

Bai JC. Malabsorption Syndromes. Digestion 59(5):530-546,1998. (This comprehensive review provides an overview of the clinical consequences of malabsorption, describes the diseases typically associated with malabsorption, and descriptions of the diagnostic tests useful in determining the etiology of the maldigestion or malabsorption. including carbohydrate, fat, bile salt, and specific nutrient absorption tests, radiologic and endoscopic procedures).

Diagnostic Procedures (Sprue)