Review articles

Mangoni AA, Jackson SHD. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med 2002;112:556-565. Review article on homocysteine and cardiovascular disease that discusses the relationship with B vitamins.

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA 2002;288:2569-78. Reviews metabolic, epidemiologic, and clinical trial evidence regarding diet and CHD prevention.

Miller ER, et al. Meta analysis: high dose vitamin E increases all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:37-46. Meta analysis that found high dose vitamin E was associated with an increased risk of mortality.

Original reports

Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. N Engl J Med 2000;343:16-22. Observational study that reported 82% of CHD in women is potentially preventable due to lifestyle including nutrition.

Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER 3 rd , Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 2001;344:3-10. Multi-center clinical trial demonstrating a significant blood pressure lowering effect in patients with and without hypertension of a dietary pattern consisting of increased amounts of vegetables and fruits, low-fat dairy products, and decreased red meat and salt consumption.

GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet 1999;354:447-55. Multi-center clinical trial demonstrating that n-3 fatty acids significantly lowered the risk of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. Vitamin E had little effect.

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Marchie A, et al. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and c-reactive protein. JAMA 2003;290:502-10. Randomized study that reported treatment with a dietary pattern including plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds lowered serum LDL cholesterol 29%, comparable to combined treatment with a low-fat diet and lovastatin.

De Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, Monjaud I, Delaye J, Mamelle N. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction. Final report of the Lyon diet heart study. Circulation 1999;99:779-85. Randomized trial that reported a Mediterranean diet was associated with a highly significant reduction in cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction compared to usual care in patients who had suffered a myocardial infarction.

Seminal papers

Ornish D, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The lifestyle heart trial. Lancet 1990;335:129-133. Randomized trial in subjects with coronary artery disease that demonstrated a low-fat vegetarian diet, exercise, and stress management decreased symptoms, improved perfusion, and decreased coronary artery stenosis compared to usual care.


American Heart Association
Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure

Practice Guidelines

Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, et al. AHA dietary Guidelines. Revision 2000: a statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2000;102:2296-311. Update on AHA guidelines to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 42:2003:1206-52. National guidelines that discuss lifestyle recommendations, including nutrition, to decrease the risk of hypertension.